COMPREHENSIVE SCIENCES
LIFE SCIENCES
FINAL EXAMINATION

GENERAL DIRECTIONS:   (1) PLACE ALL ANSWERS ON THE ANSWER SHEET
                                                   (WORDS, LETTERS, ETC.)

                                              (2) DO NOT WRITE ON THE EXAMINATION PAPER

                                              (3) READ EACH QUESTION VERY CAREFULLY, THEN
                                                   WRITE OR SELECT THE BEST ANSWER FOR EACH
                                                   QUESTION.

                                              (4) RETURN BOTH THE ANSWER SHEET AND THE
                                                   EXAMINATION PAPER!

PART I:  LABORATORY INFORMATION

(1)  Carefully consider and answer each question.
(2)  Select the best answer for multiple choice questions.
(3)  Complete the information for the fill in the blank questions.
(4)  Each question is worth ONE POINT.

1.  Why was it that a theory was not formed during any of the laboratory exercises on scientific investigations?

2.  List one type of measurable data that was used to prove or disprove the hypothesis during the laboratory  exercises.

3.  List one structural feature that was used to classify the imaginary animals during the Taxonomy laboratory.

4.  What type of classification key was used during the Taxonomy laboratory?

5.  List one plant organ that belongs to the Shoot organ system of plants.

6.  Cite an example of a modified stem.

7.  List:  (a) an internal organ that was viewed in Rana, the laboratory frog and,
(b) place it into its correct primary organ system.

8.  List one external organ that belongs to the Integumentary organ system that was viewed in the laboratory frog.

9.  a.  What is the highest magnification capacity of the laboratory microscope?
b.  What is the part of the microscope on the diagram that is labeled "B"?

10.  List one organelle that was viewed in the plant cell and not in the animal cell during the laboratory exercise.

11.  a.  Which one of the illustrations below is an animal cell?

A                                      B

        b.  List one cell organelle that is found in an animal cell and not in a plant cell.

12.  ____________ reagent detects the presence of proteins.

13.  Benedict's reagent detects the presence of ___________.

14.  If molecules in an unknown solution give negative test results for Lugol's, Benedict's, and Biuret reagents but give a positive reaction for Sudan Black, the molecules in the solution are _____________.

15.  Which laboratory test reagent must be heated before a reaction with a test substance occurs?

16.  A substance with a pH of 8 has a concentration of __________ ions.

17.  One inch equals how many centimeters?

18.  List one factor that inhibited enzyme activity during the laboratory exercise.

19.  List the substrates for (a) rennin and (b) catalase

20.  The non-gelling of the gelatin(protein) that was mixed with fresh pineapple was the result of the action of the enzyme __________.

21.  List one plant trait that was assessed during the Genetics laboratory.

22.  List one dominant human trait that was assessed in the laboratory.

23.  Identify this phase of Mitosis:

animal cell

24.  List one part of a seed.

25.  a.  List one state of starfish development that was viewed in the laboratory.

        b.  List the plant blossom structure that produces pollen.

 

PART II:  LECTURE INFORMATION

(1)  Choose the BEST answer for the multiple choice questions.

(2)  Complete the information for the fill in the blank questions

(3)  Each question is worth ONE POINT.

 

Unit I - THE INTRODUCTION


26. A theory is a well-tested (a) ______________ that is based on (b) ___________.

27. Data collected during experimentation prove or disprove the _______________.

28. ____________________ represents a type of measurable data collected during experimental investigations.

29. ____________________ is a specific natural science.

30. One distinguishing characteristic difference between scientific and non-scientific disciplines is:

31. The first step of the scientific method/scientific investigation is ____________________.

32. List a pre-20th century physical or biological scientist:

33. Arrange the following steps of the scientific method in correct chronological sequence from first to last: (i.e. A,B,C,D)  Ans:  ________________

      A. Carry out the tests.  Repeat as often as necessary to ascertain if the
     results are consistent with predictions.
B. Report objectively on the results of the tests and the conclusions drawn from   
     the results.
C. Observation
D. Formation of a statement that is testable

34. List one criterion for life that is shared by all of the various forms of life.

35. List one (a) inorganic substance/molecule that is critical to all life forms and (b) one organic substance that is critical to all life forms: (a) ___________________ (b) ____________________________

UNIT II: TAXONOMY and ECOLOGY FORMATION


36. Arrange in correct hierarchial order with the largest, most inclusive category first and the smallest, most exclusive category last, from
               Class, Family, Genus, Kingdom, Order, Phylum, Species

      _____________________________________________________________

37. The least inclusive of the following taxonomic categories is:
a. family b. phylum c. class d. genus

38. a. Cite one structural feature difference between life forms in Kingdom Protista
     and those in Kingdom Monera:

       b. Correctly write the scientific name on ONE plant.


ECOLOGY

39. What comprises an ecosystem? (Brief answer) 

40. An organism's ecological niche is its _________ _________________ in an ecosystem. 

41. Refer to the pyramid below: a. At which level does photosynthesis occur? b. Does the chemical energy available to each level increase or decrease? 

42. List one type of symbiotic relationship. 

43. List one type of biome. 

44. During the biogeochemical cycling of carbon, ______________________ is the process that releases carbon back into the atmosphere in the form of _________________. 

45. Which curve represents a population which has reached its carrying capacity (K-level) in that environment and does not continue to grow? 

46. In symbiotic relationships, organisms affect each other in different ways. Which of the following combinations describes a mutualistic relationship?
Key:       + is beneficial,
               - is harmful,
               0 is neither harmful nor beneficial

            a. +/-      b. +/+      c. +/0     d. 0/0 

47. The terrestrial biome that supports the greater diversion of floral and faunal species of life is the __________________________.

UNIT III:   STRUCTURE and PHYSIOLOGY INFORMATION

48.  a.  The eyes, tympanum, and nares belong to the __________________ (organ system).

       b.  To which organ system does the spleen belong?  __________________

49.  Refer to the illustration below.  To which organ system does the structure that is marked "A" belong?

50.  a.  __________________________ tissue develops into the surface layer of a plant.
 b.  List one type of plant vascular tissue: ______________________________. 

51.  a.  Which one of the illustrations below is that of an animal cell?

       b.  What is the organelle that is labeled "1" in illustration "B"?

A                                      B

52.  Identify these molecules

a                                     b           

       a. __________________________        b. ________________________________

UNIT IV:  GENETICS

53.  The Austrian monk who worked with varieties of garden peas to form the foundation of principles of inheritance is organisms was ________________________. 

54.  Chromosomes are located in the ____________________ of a eukaryotic cell.

55.  Human somatic cells have a total of (a) _______ chromosomes, whereas human gametes have a total of (b) __________ chromosomes.

56.  An example of a sex-linked trait is _______________________.

57.  Persons with Klienfelter's Syndrome have a total of ______ chromosomes.

58.  List the stage of Mitosis during which the amount of DNA doubles: ________________ .

59.  Which of the following correctly shows P1 in a test cross?  ________
       a.  Pp x pp          b.  PP x pp          c.  pp x pp          d. PP x PP          e.  Pp x Pp

60.  In the diagram, cell A represents a skin cell from an organism with a haploid chromosome number of 20.  Cell F in the diagram has ______ chromosomes.

             a.  10          b.  20          c.  40         d.  80

61.  The phenotypic ratio of F2 in a test cross is always __________________ .

62.  N cells/gametes are produced by the process of _____________________ .

63.  Translation  .    .   .   stage of protein synthesis

       a.  occurs on the ribosome surface           b.  is the final step in the assembly of a protein
       c.  occurs during the synthesis of RNA from DNA   d.  is catalyzed by DNA polymerase

64.  A nucleotide of RNA or DNA consists of N2-base substances and
  a. ___________________  and b. ___________________ .

UNIT V:  HOMEOSTASIS INFORMATION

65.  Enzymes are all of the following except:

      a.  catalysts      b.  saccharide substances      c.  protein molecules      d. located in living cells

66. Is the enzyme on this graph active in an acidic or a basic pH? _________

67. A specific human digestive enzyme that oxidizes protein substrates is: _________________ .

68. List one plant hormone: ____________

69.  List one animal pituitary gland hormone: ______________

70.  What plant pigment facilitates photosynthesis? ________________________

71.  What animal pigment facilitates the transport of O2 to all cells? _____________________

72.  The parasympathetic and the sympathetic nerves comprise the _______________________.

73.  List the name of a neurotransmitter substance: ______________________

74.  Identify A & B on the structure below. 

       A:_________________  B:__________________

75.  List two factors that contribute to the immune response in animals.

76.  ________________ is the process by which inorganic and organic substances move into and out of living cells.

77.  Immunization in an organism can be achieved by the introduction of (a) _________________ into the organism what will stimulate the production of (b) ______________ by the organism.

UNIT VI:  METABOLISM INFORMATION

78.  Write the general equation for photosynthesis below
       __________________________________________________________

79.  List: (a) one end product of the light reaction (light-dependent) and ( b) one end product of the dark reaction (light-independent) of photosynthesis:
  a.______________________  b. _______________________

80.  Identify (a) this organelle and (b) the structure that is labeled "A"

         a. _________________________  b. _______________________

81.  The Calvin-Benson cycle (Light-Independent reaction) begins when: ______
       a.  light is available        b. CO2  is attached to RuBP        c. O2  is attached to RuBP
       d.  N2  is attached to RuBP        e.  CO is attached to RuBP

82.  During photosynthesis, solar energy is trapped and transformed into ____________ energy.

83.  List:  an enzyme that acts on a substrate during the (a) salivary and (b) intestinal phases of extracellular digestion.   a. ___________________   b. ____________________

84.  Where is the specific site of absorption for nutrients from the digestive tract into the bloodstream? 

85.  Write the general equation for intracellular decomposition (chemical respiration).
       _______________________________________________________________

86.  Where (in the cell) does Glycolysis occur? __________________________

87.  Which one of the following is not required for Glycolysis?   __________
       a.  Glucose       b.  Oxygen (O2)       c.  ATP       d.  H2O

88.  The Electron transport systems for Aerobic reactions are located in the: ________
       a.  Chloroplast       b.  Mitochondrion       c. cytoplasm       d.  nucleus

89.  a.  Identify this organelle:  ________________________________
 b.  What general type of enzyme is found inside of this organelle?  ____________________

90.  All of the following are required for cell aerobic respiration except: _______________
  a. organic molecules       b. oxygen       c. mitochondria       d. CO2

91.  A plant cell without chloroplasts, and an animal cell will both emit which of the following gases? _______
       a.  H+ and O2        b.  O2 and CO2        c.  O2        d.  CO2

92.  Oxygen that animals breathe comes from:  _________________

       a.  autotrophs      b.  light reaction of photosynthesis      c.  dark reaction of photosynthesis      
 d.  absorption of light by chlorophyll

93.  Cellular respiration of organic molecules occurs in some manner in:

       a.  animals only     b. animals, plants, protozoa, fungi, and bacteria     c.  plants only    
 d. fungi, bacteria and protozoa

UNIT VII:  REPRODUCTION and DEVELOPMENT INFORMATION

94.  Which of the following represents the most correct sequence of the development of an animal zygote? ________

       a.  cleavage     gamete formation     fertilization     blastula     embryo
  b.   gastrula     gamete formation     blastula     cleavage     embryo
  c.   cleavage     blastula;     gastrula     embryo
  d.   embryo     fetus;     gastrula     blastula

95.  A specific type of asexual reproduction is ____________. 

96.  Meiosis is a pre-requisite for __________________ reproduction.

97.  The 2N cell that results from the fusion of nuclei of opposite gametes in plants and animals is the ________________. 

98.  Greater genetic variation in plants and animals results as a consequence of: _________
a. asexual reproduction      b. sexual reproduction      c. fertility       d. birth controls

99. Fertilization occurs in: __________

a.  plants only      b. animals only      c. plants and animals      d. bacteria and fungi

100.  Double fertilization occurs and results in the formation of: ________

a. endosperm      b. embryo      c. seed coat      d. none of these

UNIT VIII:  EVOLUTION INFORMATION

101.  ______________ is credited with developing the information that forms the basis for the Natural Selection Theory.

102.  The first form of life to evolve was a:

a. protozoan      b. primitive animal      c. bacterium      d. primitive plant

103.  Which of the following gases was not prevalent in abundance in the atmosphere of early earth, but became more prevalent after living organisms (mostly phototrophs) evolved? ____

a.  oxygen      b. nitrogen      c. methane      d. ammonia

104.  a.  List the most primitive animal.

b.   List the most primitive plant.

105.  a.   List the scientific name for the most advanced plant.

b.  List the scientific name for the most advanced animal.

PART III:  SHORT ANSWER ESSAYS - WORTH FIVE POINTS EACH

Write the essays on the answer sheet for Part III.

#1.  Cite factors that contribute to homeostasis in living organisms (list and indicate the contribution). 

#2.  Problem:  If an organism has a haploid (N) chromosome number of 10,
a.  How many chromosomes are present in prophase I of Meiosis?
b.  How many chromatids are present in metaphase II of Meiosis?
c.  How many chromosomes are present in the gametes?
d.  How many chromosomes are present in the 1st polar body?

#3.  In consideration of asexual and sexual reproduction,
a.  Which process results in greater variation in the offspring and why is this so?
b.  Is genetic variation favorable or unfavorable for the long term evolutionary survival of a species?  Why? 

OPTIONAL - EXTRA POINTS - 3 each

#4.  What are some of the criteria that are used for the taxonomic classification of life forms?

#5.  Trace the evolution of modern humans from the first hominid form.

#6.  According to the following action spectrum, at which wavelengths of light does photosynthesis occur best?  Why?